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Received Jul 28; Accepted Dec 6. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

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Abstract Non-mammaliaform cynodonts gave rise to mammals but the reproductive biology of this extinct group is still poorly known. Introduction Intraspecific aggregations, consisting of multiple individuals interacting with each other, have been documented across many tetrapod orders. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.

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Table 1 Range in basal skull length mm for each ontogenetic stage of Galesaurus and Thrinaxodon. Table 2 Characteristics of Galesaurus planiceps and Thrinaxodon liorhinus individuals found within intraspecific groups. See text for institutional abbreviations. See also Table 1. Therefore, it is equivocal whether this specimen is associated with the other three individuals. Details of specimen taken from Brink Table 3 Postcranial measurements in mm of Galesaurus planiceps and Thrinaxodon liorhinus. Abbreviations BSL basal skull length hum humerus isch ischium rad radius scap scapula — indicates the skeletal element was either missing, broken, or not measured.

Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Associated late juvenile specimens of Thrinaxodon liorhinus. Figure 8. Figure 9. Specimen TM Block TM , collected from Harrismith, contains two articulated skeletons of Thrinaxodon that are lying beside each other in a dorsal-up orientation Fig.

Figure Discussion Summary of aggregations and skeletal representation in basal cynodonts Our comprehensive survey found nine unequivocal cases in which individuals of either Galesaurus planiceps or Thrinaxodon liorhinus were preserved together Table 2. The first possibility is ruled out with the following taphonomic evidence: 1.

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Table 4 Ratios of limb bone measurements for specimens of Galesaurus planiceps and Thrinaxodon liorhinus listed in Table 3. Immature includes juvenile and subadult individuals. See text for further details. Aggregations in other non-mammalian synapsids Aggregations among other non-mammalian synapsids are relatively rare, with only a few examples of aggregations found in a basal synapsid, three dicynodont taxa, and at least one eucynodont. Abbreviation BSL Basal skull length. Aggregations in modern amniotes Extant squamates can form seasonal aggregations, including mating and winter aggregations e.

Size of young The juveniles in the two basal cynodont aggregations that represent parental care Figs. Conclusions A thorough survey of two basal non-mammaliaform cynodonts revealed several instances of aggregations in Thrinaxodon liorhinus but only two aggregations in Galesaurus planiceps Table 2.


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Supplemental Information Table S1 Full list of Galesaurus planiceps and Thrinaxodon liorhinus specimens observed in this study. Click here for additional data file. Additional Information and Declarations Competing Interests The authors declare there are no competing interests.

Faunal aggregation in the Early Triassic Karoo Basin: earliest evidence of shelter-sharing behavior among tetrapods? Ontogeny of the Early Triassic cynodont Thrinaxodon liorhinus Therapsida : dental morphology and replacement. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. A new trirachodontid cynodont from the lower levels of the Burgersdorp Formation Lower Triassic of the Beaufort Group, South Africa and the cladistic relationships of Gondwanan gomphodonts. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Aleksiuk Aleksiuk M. Armitage Armitage KB.

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https://ignamant.cl/wp-includes/56/4127-como-rastrear-un.php Balshine Balshine S. Patterns of parental care in vertebrates. The evolution of parental care. Oxford University Press; Oxford: Blob Blob RW. Evolution and ontogeny of locomotor mechanics in non-mammalian therapsids. Journal of African Earth Sciences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Anatomy and relationships of the Middle Permian varanopid Heleosaurus scholtzi based on a social aggregation from the Karoo Basin of South Africa.

Brink Brink AS. Thrinaxodon and some other Lystrosaurus zone cynodonts in the collection of the National Museum, Bloemfontein. Navorsinge van die Nasionale Museum, Bloemfontein.


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Note on a very tiny specimen of Thrinaxodon liorhinus. Palaeontologia Africana. Speculations on some advanced mammalian characteristics in the higher mammal-like reptiles. On two new specimens of Lystrosaurus -Zone cynodonts. Some theriodonts in the collection of the Bernard Price Institute. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Broom Broom R. On some new genera and species of Karroo fossil reptiles, with notes on some others. Annals of the Transvaal Museum.

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Some new fossils from the Karoo beds of South Africa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Butler Butler E. MSc thesis. The postcranial skeleton of the Early Triassic non-mammalian cynodont Galesaurus planiceps : implications for biology and lifestyle. Chinsamy-Turan Chinsamy-Turan A. Forerunners of mammals: radiation, histology, biology. Indiana University Press; Bloomington: Cisneros Cisneros JC. Cluver Cluver MA. Zorillodontops , a new scaloposaurid from the Karoo.

Annals of the South African Museum. The ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in the facial skeleton of the African apes. Journal of Human Evolution.