Many sceptics and especially countries with alternative values believe that the process of globalization has pressured them into becoming liberal democracies and believing in western capitalist values. Since the beginning of the cold war, there has always been a great tension between the western democracies and the rest of the world. Now, the few countries that do not withhold western values feel threatened and ever more forced into opening their economies and becoming a democratic system.
Globalization encourages democratic institutions which promote democracy. As the global market relies on capitalist democratic values, it is inevitable that organizations that reinforce these values are rewarded meaning they can expand into countries with other forms of government and promote these ideals.
An authoritarian government agrees to a global regime to gain benefits of one sort but is forced to accept the political consequences that follow. In conclusion, the question of globalization and the spread of democracy is a complex one.
On one hand, it may be considered a threat to democracy as it is believed that it undermines the essential requirements of state autonomy, of patriotism and of national identity. Many argue that globalization is the sole reason for the decline of the nation state, as governments do not have control over their economy, their trade and their borders anymore. Even though globalization has many advantages and one of them is the opportunity for economic growth both at an individual and a national level.
Many people, however, cannot benefit from the advantages of globalization. Small companies who are unable to compete with multi nationals on an international scale lose from more economic openness. Hence, globalization has transformed the common citizen into an individual who is much more willing to pursue its own economic interest than to be concerned with the content of public policy. On the other hand, however, globalization has expanded greatly the values of the democratic state.
According to Schumpeter globalization has helped promote economic development which has increasedd the number of educated and well trained citizens, which has resulted, in a decrease in economic inequality. Also, international businesses demand an increase in democracy.
In order for businesses to prosper, peace and stability must be established in all potential investment countries. Globalization encourages authoritarian states to decentralize power as they hand over their control to make progress for the market, which is essentially democratic.
Another proof that globalization has expanded democracy is through the reduction in information and travelling costs. People have access to a lot more information not only from their government but from around the globe. This means democracies can promote their values and ideals to autocratic countries, as autocracies have less and less control over information Hanen Hence, if one were to analyze carefully how globalization had reduced democracy and how it has expanded it, one could safely affirm that even though it has somewhat decreased the power of the nation state, on the whole, the process has in fact spread democracy around the world.
Bartelson, Jens. Dalpino, Catharin E. September Random House, Inc.
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Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture. London: Sage Publications, Under this schema the European Union, the United States, China, and potentially India are poles, but Japan and Russia would not qualify as distinct poles. Russia, for instance, scores well on certain aspects of multipolarity e. The path toward multipolarity will not be smooth. One tension is that since the Industrial Revolution the world has had an anchor point in terms of the locus and spread of globalization Britain in the nineteenth century and the United States in the twentieth century.
The fact that there are now at least three points of reference introduces a new and possibly uncertain dynamic to world affairs. The potential is high for friction, misunderstanding, and conflict among the increasingly different ways of doing things across the major poles.
Essentially, multipolarity means that instead of speaking a common language, the major poles speak different policy languages. Trade-based tension is an obvious possibility here.
Another form of tension is the crisis of identity created for countries that are not wholly within one of the poles—again, Japan, Australia, and the United Kingdom are the prime examples—and the crisis of ambition for countries, such as Russia, that want to be poles but lack the wherewithal to do so convincingly. At a more grassroots level, the implications of the end of globalization as we know it and the path to multipolarity will become a greater part of the political debate.
At the margin, the flow of people, ideas, and capital may be less global and more regional and in time could be reinforced by a growing sense of regionalization across the main poles. In a negative way, a more multipolar world may be the watershed that signals the peak of democracy and potentially the beginning of contests within regions for competing views of democracy, institutional strength, statecraft, and control.
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Dynamics of Democracy and Inequality in the Context of Globalization (June 2017)
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Theme: Democratic globalization
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