The fourth gospel shows traces that an understanding of patron-client relationship is one of the assumptions that underlie its writing and, therefore, its understanding. In addition, the Jesus of the fourth gospel seemingly advocates a complex web of patron-client relationships with his followers.
These two positions will be discussed in turn. Right from the start, there seems to be a castigation of the 'world' as an entity that failed to do obeisance, figuratively speaking, to its benefactor, logos.
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Extending the imagery of the Roman concept of patron-client, it could be said that the fact of creation has made logos a patron, 6 in Roman parlance, and the world that he made his client. The reciprocity and the sense of obligation on the part of the world that should characterise the relationship is lacking, as John 1 tersely states:. He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him. He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him.
The tenor for the conflict between the world and logos incarnate that would soon pervade the gospel is hereby set. From the perspective of a patron-client relationship, the blame is squarely put at the doorstep of the world - it was guilty of ingratitude, which was an unforgivable sin according to Cicero. In John a contrast is seen as a group emerges that is in the world, but not of the world. The latter group is described as follows: 'to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God' Jn For the group that accepts and believes in logos, the patron-client relationship brought about by creation deepens to something else that would later unfold in the gospel where it is stated Jn : 'I no longer call you servants I have called you friends'.
Yet, the patron-client relationship is still intact for 'no one gets to the father except by me' Jn Some scholars have denied the prevalence of patron-client relationship on account of the fact that the term was not used in literature. But, as Saller has pointed out: 'cliens certainly carried connotations of social inferiority, and, as a result, aristocratic authors most often used it with reference to "humble men"'. Saller ibid notes that 'some Romans think it as bitter as death to have accepted a patron or to be called clients'.
If Saller's observation is true, then the term cliens had become quite derogatory, and this perhaps explains the sparce reference to it in literature.
The term amici [friends] was then more widely used. The term amici however soon became differentiated, as Saller puts it quite succinctly:. Though willing to extend the courtesy of the label amicus to some of their inferiors, the status-conscious Romans did not allow the courtesy to obscure the relative social standings of the two parties.
On the contrary, amici were subdivided into categories: superiors, pares and inferiors and then lower down the hierarchy, humble clientes.
Patronage in ancient Rome - Wikipedia
A Latin translation would render friends as amici and this would highlight all these possibilities of friendship amongst equals, or with a superior or an inferior. The fourth gospel, in contradistinction to the synoptic gospels, is notable for its use of dualism such as light vs. The notion of dualism as found in the gospel is crucial, for it emphasises the transcendence of God to the world he has made. In patron-client terms, it shows that God and humans do not belong to the same class asymmetry. This scenario makes the agency of Jesus, the God-man, as the broker or the intermediary between God and humanity inevitable Piper By employing the literary device of dualism the writer of the fourth gospel, one may surmise, sets the stage for the brokerage of Jesus and hence a patron-client reading of the gospel.
The 'calling' of the disciples. The fourth gospel presents a unique Roman patron-client-inclined method of the 'calling' of the disciples that is quite unlike the account of the synoptics.
Personal patronage under the early Empire
Whilst in the synoptic gospels we see Jesus calling on certain people to become his disciples, the fourth gospel shows the would-be disciples, with the exception of Phillip, showing up literarily at the 'doorstep' of Jesus in a true clientelistic fashion. According to Deniaux, an individual could make a request to enter a state of clientship voluntarily. Such a request is called applicatio or commendatio, which means an act of entrusting oneself to someone else. Andrew Drummond concurs with this view by saying that patron-client relationships usually occur at the instigation of the client.
Andrew came to Jesus at the recommendation of John the Baptist, Peter came at the recommendation of Andrew, and Nathaniel came at the recommendation of Phillip. In this manner, they served as brokers linking their 'clients' to the patron, Jesus.
Other patrons and brokers in the fourth gospel. The fourth gospel seems to identify other people who could act as brokers, but soon puts such claims to rest. Perhaps the strongest possible claims are John and Moses. The fourth gospel goes to great lengths to demonstrate that John is not the broker. At best he appears as someone who introduces clients to Jesus and then fades out of the scene.
John the Baptist is described merely as a witness to the light and not the light himself Jn John the Baptist of the fourth gospel openly declares his inferior position that he is not the Christ Jn , 20, , The demotion of John as a would-be patron seems complete when two of his disciples transfer their allegiance to Jesus Jn At best, 'John is, in a sense, sent from God as a broker. He brokers access to Jesus by revealing him to Israel' Brown But once he accomplishes this he disappears from the scene.
The fact that he does not continue as a broker implies that he was, as he called himself, a voice and not a broker.
Moses is a more formidable contender for the role of a broker as portrayed by the Pharisees. Right from the first chapter of the fourth gospel the scene is set for what would later follow in the gospel. Moses is compared with Jesus in a contrastive manner: 'the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ' Jn In an apparent repudiation of the fame of Moses as one 'who spoke face to face with God' Ex , and the one who saw the back parts of God Ex , the fourth gospel says that no one has ever seen God except the only begotten one of God who lies at the bosom of the father.
Yet, this is just but a hint of how the matter may be resolved later, for the disciples of Moses Jn carried on the contention until they got Jesus killed.
In the instances cited above, where John and Moses acted as would-be brokers, the writer of the fourth gospel affirms Jesus as the only credible broker. Arguing from another perspective, Buck says:. John's extreme christology christus solus allowed for no other centres of interest, let alone rival sects. In his zeal, John was suspicious even of the figure of the Mother of Christ, who later developed into the Mother of God.
The ambiguity that characterises Jesus' role as a broker or as a patron is found right from the first verse of the fourth gospel. The relationship between logos, who is also referred to as God, and God a distinct being is not explained, but assumed in this verse. As noted above, logos is a patron to the world by virtue of creation. An interesting twist comes in verse 13 of the first chapter, for those who accept the patronage of logos are curiously not called the children of the word, but the children of God. Verse 14 explicitly states that the word, having become enfleshed, has its origin in God.
Perhaps this is a key to understanding the concept of the patron or broker role of Jesus in the fourth gospel - the word's descent to the world puts him in a role that affords him to be the link between God and humanity, for he now shares a relationship with both parties. As the word he was a patron to the world, and becoming a citizen in the world though not of the world , the prospective clients would be more at home with him and he could serve them better as a broker.
Jesus' brokerage and christology in the fourth gospel. Reading through the fourth gospel, it is clear that Jesus is unequivocally presented as a broker in the fourth gospel. A broker, as defined by Boissevain , dispenses 'second order resources' for he or she is in 'strategic contact with other people who control such resources directly or have access to such persons'.
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- Personal patronage under the early Empire.
- Patronage in ancient Rome;
- Personal patronage under the early Empire.
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Ultimate patrons on the other hand have direct control over the resources. A broker is effective to broker goods and services to his clients based on the degree of his intimate relationship with the patron. To this end, the Jesus of the fourth gospel makes reference to himself as someone sent by God, as someone who speaks what God asked him to speak Jn , as someone who obeys his father, and as someone intimate with God. God shows him everything , and everything the father has belongs to him His intimate relationship with God is consistently presented throughout the whole gospel.
He is the one who had been with God at the beginning. As logos, he is God's agent in creation.
He is the one that was at the bosom or side of the father Because of this, he is matchless: Moses could not compete with him , Abraham paled into insignificance before him 'before Abraham was I am' Nicodemus acknowledged him as the teacher who came from God, for no one could do the miracles that he did unless God was with him.
The Samaritan woman's attempt to compare him with Jacob who dug a well for them was met with a greater claim when Jesus said : 'the water I will give you will become a well in you springing to eternal life'. The man born blind Jn asserts that 'nobody has ever heard of opening the eyes of a man born blind, if this man were not from God he could do nothing'. The intimate relationship that Jesus has with the father assumes a unique degree of unity as to suggest equality 'my father and I are one' Jn , resulting in the high Christology we have in the fourth gospel. Brown's comments are instructive at this point:.
Jesus' greatest advantage over other purported brokers to God is his heavenly origin and his ability to claim for himself the honour status of his Father, God. The effectiveness of Jesus' brokerage depends entirely on his unique ability as God's Son to mediate access to God p. Gifts and obligations in patron-client relationship in the fourth gospel. Benefits of Jesus' brokerage. As in every patron-client relationship there are gifts beneficia that the patron should bestow on his clients.
The terms beneficium, officium and meritum, according to Saller , are the favours which parties involved in patron-client relationships bestow on each other. They range from the right to become children of God Jn , eternal life Jn , , , baptism of the Holy Spirit Jn , , and his name Jn The responsibilities and duties of the clients. The clients on their part were required primarily to believe in him. The theme of belief runs through the whole of the gospel: from 'to all who received him, to those who believed in him' Jn , through to the proclamation by Thomas: 'my Lord and my God' Jn In between these two are accounts of those who accepted him Jn 4 and those who rejected him Jn , leading ultimately to his crucifixion.
The signs that Jesus performed do not function as gifts beneficia to clients, but as a form of the Roman commendationes. Brokers' success does not only hinge on how well related or intimate they are to the holders of primary resources, but on the fact that their well-connectedness is public knowledge. Jesus' intimate relations with the father would not make him a broker unless this knowledge is made known to the public.tidicenthand.tk
Personal Patronage under the Early Empire
The signs performed by Jesus, in this light, were meant to bring him to public notice as one approved by God and by this means have people repose their confidence in him. Strictly speaking, commendationes are recommendations written by a broker on behalf of his client to a patron. It is in this light that John the Baptist's testimony of Jesus introduces Jesus to the people.
In a monologue in chapter five, Jesus acknowledges John's testimony, but considers the testimony of the 'works' greater than John's. The episode of the feeding of the by Jesus perhaps best illustrates the understanding of signs as commendationes. After feeding them, the crowd wanted to forcefully make Jesus a king, 13 but he quickly withdrew from them.