Neoliberalism was not conceived as a self-serving racket, but it rapidly became one. Economic growth has been markedly slower in the neoliberal era since in Britain and the US than it was in the preceding decades; but not for the very rich. Inequality in the distribution of both income and wealth, after 60 years of decline, rose rapidly in this era, due to the smashing of trade unions, tax reductions, rising rents, privatisation and deregulation.
The privatisation or marketisation of public services such as energy, water, trains, health, education, roads and prisons has enabled corporations to set up tollbooths in front of essential assets and charge rent, either to citizens or to government, for their use. Rent is another term for unearned income. When you pay an inflated price for a train ticket, only part of the fare compensates the operators for the money they spend on fuel, wages, rolling stock and other outlays. The rest reflects the fact that they have you over a barrel. In Russia and India, oligarchs acquired state assets through firesales.
As the poor become poorer and the rich become richer, the rich acquire increasing control over another crucial asset: money. Interest payments, overwhelmingly, are a transfer of money from the poor to the rich. As property prices and the withdrawal of state funding load people with debt think of the switch from student grants to student loans , the banks and their executives clean up. Sayer argues that the past four decades have been characterised by a transfer of wealth not only from the poor to the rich, but within the ranks of the wealthy: from those who make their money by producing new goods or services to those who make their money by controlling existing assets and harvesting rent, interest or capital gains.
Earned income has been supplanted by unearned income. Neoliberal policies are everywhere beset by market failures. Not only are the banks too big to fail, but so are the corporations now charged with delivering public services. As Tony Judt pointed out in Ill Fares the Land , Hayek forgot that vital national services cannot be allowed to collapse, which means that competition cannot run its course.
Business takes the profits, the state keeps the risk. The greater the failure, the more extreme the ideology becomes. Governments use neoliberal crises as both excuse and opportunity to cut taxes, privatise remaining public services, rip holes in the social safety net, deregulate corporations and re-regulate citizens. The self-hating state now sinks its teeth into every organ of the public sector. Perhaps the most dangerous impact of neoliberalism is not the economic crises it has caused, but the political crisis.
As the domain of the state is reduced, our ability to change the course of our lives through voting also contracts. Instead, neoliberal theory asserts, people can exercise choice through spending. But some have more to spend than others: in the great consumer or shareholder democracy, votes are not equally distributed.
The result is a disempowerment of the poor and middle. As parties of the right and former left adopt similar neoliberal policies, disempowerment turns to disenfranchisement. Large numbers of people have been shed from politics. When political debate no longer speaks to us, people become responsive instead to slogans, symbols and sensation.
To the admirers of Trump, for example, facts and arguments appear irrelevant. Judt explained that when the thick mesh of interactions between people and the state has been reduced to nothing but authority and obedience, the only remaining force that binds us is state power. Like communism, neoliberalism is the God that failed.
- Anti-Individualism: Mind and Language, Knowledge and Justification (Cambridge Studies in Philosophy).
- Schaums Outline Series Theory and Problems of Basic Electrical Engineering;
- View: India's economy is in crisis after reduced GDP estimate.
- Structural problems of capitalism;
But the zombie doctrine staggers on, and one of the reasons is its anonymity. Or rather, a cluster of anonymities.
The invisible doctrine of the invisible hand is promoted by invisible backers. Slowly, very slowly, we have begun to discover the names of a few of them. We find that the Institute of Economic Affairs, which has argued forcefully in the media against the further regulation of the tobacco industry, has been secretly funded by British American Tobacco since We discover that Charles and David Koch , two of the richest men in the world, founded the institute that set up the Tea Party movement.
The words used by neoliberalism often conceal more than they elucidate. But it is fraught with power relations. One is the funding of productive and socially useful activities, the other is the purchase of existing assets to milk them for rent, interest, dividends and capital gains. I stress they have to appreciate the difference between the Keynes of the s and the Keynesian policies pursued in the s, s and s, and I certainly don't agree with people who say Keynesian policies ultimately failed during the inflation of the early s.
That wasn't Keynesian economics. Some people say Keynes didn't pursue his own logic to its ultimate conclusion because he wanted to preserve the capitalist system. I agree.
Capitalism simply isn't working and here are the reasons why | Will Hutton
There are grounds for criticism of Keynes, but there's an awful lot Keynes can teach us. You can take a lot from Keynes and from Marx, and I don't think it's like wearing a football shirt where you have to support one team or the other, which is sometimes how its portrayed. Is that sitting on the fence? I don't necessarily think it is, because in order to understand when this crisis is going to end you still need to have a good understanding of Keynes's policies.
You need to understand whether or not what they've done thus far is likely to succeed. My view is negative. I don't believe running up big budget deficits is the solution, as I've already explained. But ultimately I do come down on Marx's side in terms of the structural causes of crisis. Also the environment was something Marx talked about, so he was far-sighted in that.
The biggest criticism of capitalism could be that it does irreparable damage to the planet. The point I ultimately make in my book on the way to run the economy is that if they can screw this up with the credit crunch, big time, then that is perhaps the biggest indicator of their inability to tackle climate change.
- Interactions of Yeasts, Moulds, and Antifungal Agents: How to Detect Resistance;
- A running list of how President Trump is changing environmental policy;
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How do you think that the changes to capitalism since the s have altered the dynamic of the system - particularly the growth of multinationals and the expanded role of the state? I think it's damaging that governments have failed to challenge multinationals. This is where the power invested in banks is so destructive, because they fuel the growth of mergers that creates these multinationals. Multinationals do huge damage, not just to the planet, but also by incessantly driving wages down.
And the credit crunch has done nothing to dent their power. When the queen went to visit the London School of Economics, she asked why nobody saw the crisis coming. What do you make of the responses by mainstream economists? Are there any signs that they are changing their approach? The queen was badly advised.
There were lots of people who saw the crisis coming. It shows the sort of circles she's mixing in! It comes back to Marx's critique. Why do these people make policy mistakes? It's because they believe somehow that they've created an economy that is sound. Marxist economists should be given a much greater role in explaining the contradictions in capitalism.diarasrebi.cf
Intellectual Property And Market Failure
Chris Harman's book Zombie Capitalism is really important because it explains the long-term crisis and there's not enough of that sort of explanation around. It's too easy to just dismiss Marxist economics, as people do, without fully understanding it. I don't see a significant shift in mainstream economics. If anything, people are digging in their heels, saying that the market works although we've had a bit of a blip. That seems to be the prevailing view at the moment, which is obviously inherently depressing.
Possible Reasons at the Top
What about the policy responses by our rulers? There seems to have been a sharp turn towards state intervention. Is that a good thing? There has been a sharp turn towards state intervention to preserve the status quo, not to roll back the market. They always talk about more regulation - it's similar to what happened after the dotcom boom. Then people said we need to tighten up the rules. But the moment the cycle appears to turn the banks start to exercise their lobbying power to ensure that regulation is not nearly as tight as politicians initially planned. We can't go down the road of believing tightening up on regulations is going to solve this crisis.
It's simply is not good enough at all. Skip to main content. Search form. Toggle navigation. Structural problems of capitalism.
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Intellectual Property And Market Failure – Owen Abroad
The Systems Thinker Blog. Nevin went on to say: "Economists like to pretend that the economy is like the weather, sometimes good and sometimes bad. Put Systems Thinkers in Government Laws and proven principles should dictate the actions of government systems to "promote the general welfare" of the people of this nation. If we had Systems Thinkers in government, we would: Define the problems of our nation and the desired outcome we seek.
Apply laws, principles and best practices to create effective systems and processes. Measure the results of the systems against desired outcomes. Get rid of systems that do not produce expected results. Refine and improve the effective systems to continually reduce waste and increase performance. Pretty simple!