In , most of the top 10 causes of death by the World Health Organization were associated with physical, work and social environments. How this unfolds is particularly clear if we look at South African statistics on the top 10 diseases affecting the country. One is diabetes.
The disease is strongly linked to nutrition, food availability and affordability. This means that, in most populations that have become dependent on purchased food, diabetes tracks poverty. A range of diseases are closely associated with diabetes and share strong links to diet and nutrition.
Climate Change and Human Health
These include cerebrovascular diseases, other forms of heart disease, hypertensive diseases and ischaemic health disease, including strokes and heart attacks. Influenza, pneumonia and tuberculosis are also in the top All are airborne infections, with the risk of these conditions highest among the very young, old, and people with HIV or other immune-mediated conditions.
For its part, TB spreads in closed environments. Chronic lower respiratory diseases include chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma and occur as a result of toxins, chronic infection and inflammation. Cigarette smoke is the primary factor, but industrial pollution and occupational health hazards contribute to this toll. Many of these conditions are linked to the environment in a very direct way. Water, sanitation, crowding and poor ventilation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution — from cooking and heating, manufacturing and the use of fossil fuels in transport — all contribute to continued high rates of lower respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases and lung cancer.
The WHO draws attention to decreased exposure to environmental health risks with increasing socioeconomic development. But we cannot wait for this to be resolved without active steps being made. Financial resources, research and development through collaborations with universities and corporations have been set aside to develop new, affordable technologies to diagnose disease and to develop drugs to intercept the development of the disease.
While these investments will continue, more needs to be done.
SCN Food & Nutrition Resource Portal - Climate Change and Human Health: Risks and responses
To reduce deaths and disease associated with climate change, governments and communities must address global warming. View the discussion thread. Why human health and health ethics must be central to climate change deliberations. PLoS Med. Health Aff Millwood. Stern N. London, England: HM Treasury; Environmental Protection Agency. The Clean Power Plan: benefits of a cleaner, more efficient power sector.
White House Council on Environmental Quality. Progress report of the Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force: recommended actions in support of a national climate change adaptation strategy.
Policy and Guidance
Sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Millions dead: how do we know and what does it mean? Methods used in the comparative risk assessment of household air pollution. Annu Rev Public Health. An integrated risk function for estimating the global burden of disease attributable to ambient fine particulate matter exposure. February ;— Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.
Estimate of the carbon footprint of the US health care sector.
Climate Change Impacts
Building resilience against climate effects—a novel framework to facilitate climate readiness in public health agencies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Climate and Health Program. Extreme Weather and Climate Readiness: toolkit for state health departments. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
byelulogwi.ga Climate Resilience Toolkit. World Health Organization. List of publications about climate change and human health. What is Public Health? Abstract Climate change poses major threats to human health, human and animal populations, ecological stability, and human social, financial, and political stability and well-being. Evidence-Based Interventions and Strategies Public health has a critically important role to play in addressing environmental threats to human health. Public health departments and health care systems should incorporate climate vulnerability assessments, planning, tracking, and interventions into public health strategies and health care provision.
APHA also calls upon policymakers and public administrators to actively include community members when developing climate change strategies and policies at the local, regional, state, and national levels.
Calls upon the public health and health care communities to communicate the critical importance of mitigating and adapting to climate change, including advocating for reducing emissions of heat-trapping greenhouse gases, communicating the impacts of climate change on human health, promoting community resilience and adaptation to changes in climate that cannot be prevented, and promoting strategies to address climate change that maximize benefits and co-benefits to health.
Calls upon federal, state, and local governments to provide health agencies and organizations with the mandate, leadership, and adequate resources to support climate change activities; calls upon leaders within the CDC and the US Department of Health and Human Services DHHS to strengthen CDC and DHHS climate change programs; calls upon Congress to provide the necessary funding; and further calls upon Congress to increase funding to the National Institutes of Health for climate change research.
Calls upon all health agencies and organizations to demonstrate leadership by adopting firm commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase energy efficiency related to their activities and to communicate publicly about the reasons for adopting such practices. Calls upon all training programs for health professionals, including public health, medical, and nursing programs, to include climate change in their curricula.
APHA also urges postsecondary education programs in all relevant earth sciences to include instruction on the public health consequences of climate change; K—12 science instruction to incorporate climate change, the health consequences of climate change, and climate change preparedness; and public education on prevention and preparedness for climate change to address health impacts.
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Calls upon public health departments and health providers to incorporate climate vulnerability assessments, planning, tracking, and interventions into emerging population health approaches that integrate health care provision with public health strategies.
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