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The ancient world lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials heavily relied on forced confessions and witness testimony. However, ancient sources do contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow concepts in forensic science that were developed centuries later. Song Ci ruled regulation about autopsy report for court, [8] how to protect the evidence in the examining process, the reason why workers must show examination to public impartiality. In one of Song Ci's accounts Washing Away of Wrongs , the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by an investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location.

Types of Forensic Scientists: Disciplines of AAFS

He realized it was a sickle by testing various blades on an animal carcass and comparing the wound. Flies, attracted by the smell of blood, eventually gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. For example, the book also described how to distinguish between a drowning water in the lungs and strangulation broken neck cartilage , along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide or an accident.

Methods from around the world involved saliva and examination of the mouth and tongue to determine innocence or guilt, as a precursor to the Polygraph test. In ancient India , [14] some suspects were made to fill their mouths with dried rice and spit it back out. Similarly, in ancient China , those accused of a crime would have rice powder placed in their mouths.


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It is thought that these tests had some validity [ citation needed ] since a guilty person would produce less saliva and thus have a drier mouth; the accused would be considered guilty if rice was sticking to their mouths in abundance or if their tongues were severely burned due to lack of shielding from saliva. In 16th-century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on the cause and manner of death. Two examples of English forensic science in individual legal proceedings demonstrate the increasing use of logic and procedure in criminal investigations at the time.

In , in Lancaster , John Toms was tried and convicted for murdering Edward Culshaw with a pistol. When the dead body of Culshaw was examined, a pistol wad crushed paper used to secure powder and balls in the muzzle found in his head wound matched perfectly with a torn newspaper found in Toms's pocket, leading to the conviction.

In Warwick , a farm laborer was tried and convicted of the murder of a young maidservant. She had been drowned in a shallow pool and bore the marks of violent assault. The police found footprints and an impression from corduroy cloth with a sewn patch in the damp earth near the pool.


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There were also scattered grains of wheat and chaff. The breeches of a farm labourer who had been threshing wheat nearby were examined and corresponded exactly to the impression in the earth near the pool. A method for detecting arsenious oxide, simple arsenic , in corpses was devised in by the Swedish chemist, Carl Wilhelm Scheele. James Marsh was the first to apply this new science to the art of forensics. He was called by the prosecution in a murder trial to give evidence as a chemist in The defendant, John Bodle, was accused of poisoning his grandfather with arsenic-laced coffee.

Marsh performed the standard test by mixing a suspected sample with hydrogen sulfide and hydrochloric acid. While he was able to detect arsenic as yellow arsenic trisulfide , when it was shown to the jury it had deteriorated, allowing the suspect to be acquitted due to reasonable doubt. Annoyed by that, Marsh developed a much better test. He combined a sample containing arsenic with sulfuric acid and arsenic-free zinc , resulting in arsine gas.

The gas was ignited, and it decomposed to pure metallic arsenic, which, when passed to a cold surface, would appear as a silvery-black deposit. He first described this test in The Edinburgh Philosophical Journal in Henry Goddard at Scotland Yard pioneered the use of bullet comparison in He noticed a flaw in the bullet that killed the victim and was able to trace this back to the mold that was used in the manufacturing process. The French police officer Alphonse Bertillon was the first to apply the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement, thereby creating an identification system based on physical measurements.

Before that time, criminals could only be identified by name or photograph. Bertillon created many other forensics techniques, including forensic document examination , the use of galvanoplastic compounds to preserve footprints , ballistics , and the dynamometer , used to determine the degree of force used in breaking and entering. Although his central methods were soon to be supplanted by fingerprinting , "his other contributions like the mug shot and the systematization of crime-scene photography remain in place to this day.

Sir William Herschel was one of the first to advocate the use of fingerprinting in the identification of criminal suspects. While working for the Indian Civil Service , he began to use thumbprints on documents as a security measure to prevent the then-rampant repudiation of signatures in In at Hooghly near Kolkata , Herschel instituted the use of fingerprints on contracts and deeds, and he registered government pensioners' fingerprints to prevent the collection of money by relatives after a pensioner's death.

In , Dr. Henry Faulds , a Scottish surgeon in a Tokyo hospital, published his first paper on the subject in the scientific journal Nature , discussing the usefulness of fingerprints for identification and proposing a method to record them with printing ink.

Crime Scene Processing and Evidence Collection

He established their first classification and was also the first to identify fingerprints left on a vial. Faulds wrote to Charles Darwin with a description of his method, but, too old and ill to work on it, Darwin gave the information to his cousin, Francis Galton , who was interested in anthropology. Having been thus inspired to study fingerprints for ten years, Galton published a detailed statistical model of fingerprint analysis and identification and encouraged its use in forensic science in his book Finger Prints.

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He had calculated that the chance of a "false positive" two different individuals having the same fingerprints was about 1 in 64 billion. Juan Vucetich , an Argentine chief police officer, created the first method of recording the fingerprints of individuals on file. In , after studying Galton's pattern types, Vucetich set up the world's first fingerprint bureau.

In that same year, Francisca Rojas of Necochea was found in a house with neck injuries whilst her two sons were found dead with their throats cut. Rojas accused a neighbour, but despite brutal interrogation, this neighbour would not confess to the crimes. Inspector Alvarez, a colleague of Vucetich, went to the scene and found a bloody thumb mark on a door. When it was compared with Rojas' prints, it was found to be identical with her right thumb. She then confessed to the murder of her sons. A Fingerprint Bureau was established in Calcutta Kolkata , India, in , after the Council of the Governor General approved a committee report that fingerprints should be used for the classification of criminal records.

Haque and Bose were Indian fingerprint experts who have been credited with the primary development of a fingerprint classification system eventually named after their supervisor, Sir Edward Richard Henry. Sir Edward Richard Henry subsequently achieved improvements in dactyloscopy. In the United States, Dr. Henry P.

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Faurot, an expert in the Bertillon system and a fingerprint advocate at Police Headquarters, introduced the fingerprinting of criminals to the United States. The Uhlenhuth test , or the antigen—antibody precipitin test for species, was invented by Paul Uhlenhuth in and could distinguish human blood from animal blood, based on the discovery that the blood of different species had one or more characteristic proteins. The test represented a major breakthrough and came to have tremendous importance in forensic science.

Forensic DNA analysis was first used in It was developed by Sir Alec Jeffreys , who realized that variation in the genetic code could be used to identify individuals and to tell individuals apart from one another. The first application of DNA profiles was used by Jefferys in a double murder mystery in the small English town of Narborough, Leicestershire , in A year-old school girl by the name of Lynda Mann was raped and murdered in Carlton Hayes psychiatric hospital. The police did not find a suspect but were able to obtain a semen sample.

In , Dawn Ashworth, 15 years old, was also raped and strangled in the nearby village of Enderby. Forensic evidence showed that both killers had the same blood type. Richard Buckland became the suspect because he worked at Carlton Hayes psychiatric hospital, had been spotted near Dawn Ashworth's murder scene and knew unreleased details about the body.


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  5. He later confessed to Dawn's murder but not Lynda's. Jefferys was brought into the case to analyze the semen samples.

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    Ebook Analysis And Interpretation Of Fire Scene Evidence (Forensic Science Techniques)

    He concluded that there was no match between the samples and Buckland, who became the first person to be exonerated using DNA. Jefferys confirmed that the DNA profiles were identical for the two murder semen samples. To find the perpetrator, DNA samples from the entire male population, more than 4, aged from 17 to 34, of the town were collected.

    Subdisciplines of Forensic Science

    They all were compared to semen samples from the crime. A friend of Colin Pitchfork was heard saying that he had given his sample to the police claiming to be Colin. Colin Pitchfork was arrested in and it was found that his DNA profile matched the semen samples from the murder. Because of this case, DNA databases were developed. These searchable databases are used to match crime scene DNA profiles to those already in a database.

    By the turn of the 20th century, the science of forensics had become largely established in the sphere of criminal investigation. Scientific and surgical investigation was widely employed by the Metropolitan Police during their pursuit of the mysterious Jack the Ripper , who had killed a number of prostitutes in the s.

    This case is a watershed in the application of forensic science. Large teams of policemen conducted house-to-house inquiries throughout Whitechapel. Forensic material was collected and examined. Suspects were identified, traced and either examined more closely or eliminated from the inquiry.

    Police work follows the same pattern today. Initially, butchers, surgeons and physicians were suspected because of the manner of the mutilations. The alibis of local butchers and slaughterers were investigated, with the result that they were eliminated from the inquiry. Whitechapel was close to the London Docks , [46] and usually such boats docked on Thursday or Friday and departed on Saturday or Sunday.

    At the end of October, Robert Anderson asked police surgeon Thomas Bond to give his opinion on the extent of the murderer's surgical skill and knowledge. Handbook for Coroners, police officials, military policemen was written by the Austrian criminal jurist Hans Gross in , and is generally acknowledged as the birth of the field of criminalistics. The work combined in one system fields of knowledge that had not been previously integrated, such as psychology and physical science, and which could be successfully used against crime.

    Gross adapted some fields to the needs of criminal investigation, such as crime scene photography.